Poland Supplies

Poland, officially known as the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is bordered by Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and Lithuania and Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) to the northeast. Poland also shares maritime borders with Sweden and Denmark across the Baltic Sea to the north.



Poland has a temperate climate, with cold winters and mild summers. The climate is influenced by maritime air masses from the Atlantic Ocean and continental air masses from the east. The country experiences four distinct seasons, with temperatures ranging from below freezing in winter to highs of around 30°C (86°F) in summer. Precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year, with snowfall common in winter months.


Poland’s diverse landscape supports a variety of fauna, including mammals such as deer, wild boar, wolves, and lynx. The country is also home to numerous bird species, including storks, eagles, and owls. In addition, Poland’s rivers and lakes are inhabited by fish species such as trout, pike, and perch.

Longest Rivers

The longest river in Poland is the Vistula (Wisła), which flows approximately 1,047 kilometers (651 miles) from its source in the Beskids Mountains to the Baltic Sea. The Vistula River is a vital waterway, serving as a transportation route and source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power generation.

Highest Mountains

Poland’s highest mountains are located in the Tatra Mountains, which form part of the Carpathian mountain range. The highest peak in Poland is Rysy, which reaches an elevation of 2,499 meters (8,199 feet) above sea level. Other notable peaks in the Tatra Mountains include Giewont, Kasprowy Wierch, and Świnica.



The territory of present-day Poland has been inhabited since prehistoric times, with evidence of human presence dating back tens of thousands of years. Early settlements were established by Celtic, Germanic, and Slavic tribes, who engaged in agriculture, hunting, and trade.

Medieval Period

In the early Middle Ages, Poland emerged as a unified state under the Piast dynasty. The country’s borders expanded through conquest and diplomacy, reaching its zenith during the reign of King Casimir III the Great in the 14th century. Poland became a regional power, known for its tolerance and multiculturalism, attracting settlers from various ethnic and religious backgrounds.

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

In the late Middle Ages, Poland formed a union with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, creating the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, one of the largest and most populous states in Europe. The Commonwealth flourished culturally, economically, and politically, with notable achievements in art, literature, and science.

Partitions and Independence

In the late 18th century, Poland was partitioned by its neighboring powers—Russia, Prussia, and Austria—resulting in the disappearance of the Polish state from the map of Europe for over a century. However, Polish nationalism persisted, leading to numerous uprisings and movements for independence. Poland regained its sovereignty in 1918 following World War I, with the establishment of the Second Polish Republic.

World War II and Communist Era

Poland was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union during World War II, resulting in widespread devastation and loss of life. The country endured occupation, resistance, and genocide, including the Holocaust, in which millions of Polish Jews were murdered. After the war, Poland fell under Soviet influence and became a communist state, known as the People’s Republic of Poland, until the fall of communism in 1989.

Modern Age

Since the fall of communism, Poland has undergone rapid economic and political transformation, transitioning to a market economy and democratic system. The country joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004, solidifying its place as a member of the Western community of nations. Today, Poland is a thriving democracy with a growing economy and vibrant cultural scene.



As of the latest available data, Poland has a population of approximately 38 million people, making it the sixth most populous country in the European Union. The population is relatively homogeneous, with ethnic Poles comprising the vast majority of the population. There are also small minorities of Ukrainians, Germans, Belarusians, and others.

Ethnicity and Language

Ethnic Poles make up over 95% of the population, with Polish being the official language and primary spoken language of the country. Minority languages, such as Ukrainian, German, and Belarusian, are also spoken in certain regions, particularly along Poland’s borders with neighboring countries.


The majority of Poles identify as Roman Catholic, with Catholicism playing a significant role in Polish culture, history, and identity. The Catholic Church has a strong presence in Poland, with numerous churches, cathedrals, and religious festivals throughout the country. There are also small minority communities of Orthodox Christians, Protestants, and Muslims.

Administrative Divisions and Population

Poland is divided into 16 voivodeships (provinces), which are further subdivided into powiats (counties) and gminas (communes). The following is a list of Poland’s administrative divisions along with their populations:

  1. Masovian Voivodeship – Population: 5.4 million
  2. Lesser Poland Voivodeship – Population: 3.3 million
  3. Silesian Voivodeship – Population: 4.5 million
  4. Greater Poland Voivodeship – Population: 3.5 million
  5. Lower Silesian Voivodeship – Population: 2.9 million
  6. Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship – Population: 2 million
  7. Łódź Voivodeship – Population: 2.5 million
  8. Lublin Voivodeship – Population: 2.1 million
  9. Lubusz Voivodeship – Population: 1 million
  10. Opole Voivodeship – Population: 0.9 million
  1. Podkarpackie Voivodeship – Population: 2.1 million
  2. Podlaskie Voivodeship – Population: 1.2 million
  3. Pomeranian Voivodeship – Population: 2.3 million
  4. Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship – Population: 1.4 million
  5. West Pomeranian Voivodeship – Population: 1.7 million
  6. Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship – Population: 1.2 million

10 Largest Cities by Population

  1. Warsaw – Population: 1.8 million
  2. Kraków – Population: 770,000
  3. Łódź – Population: 685,000
  4. Wrocław – Population: 640,000
  5. Poznań – Population: 540,000
  6. Gdańsk – Population: 470,000
  7. Szczecin – Population: 400,000
  8. Bydgoszcz – Population: 350,000
  9. Lublin – Population: 340,000
  10. Białystok – Population: 300,000

Education Systems

Education in Poland is free and compulsory from the ages of 6 to 18, consisting of primary, secondary, and higher education. The country has a well-developed education system with a high literacy rate. Poland’s top universities include the University of Warsaw, Jagiellonian University in Kraków, and Warsaw University of Technology.



Poland has several major airports, with the busiest being Warsaw Chopin Airport, located in the capital city. Other major airports include John Paul II International Airport Kraków-Balice, Gdańsk Lech Wałęsa Airport, and Katowice Airport.


Poland has an extensive railway network, operated by the state-owned company Polskie Koleje Państwowe (PKP). The total length of the railway network is approximately 19,000 kilometers (11,806 miles), connecting major cities and towns across the country.


Poland has a well-developed system of highways and expressways, including the A1, A2, and A4 motorways, which connect major cities and regions. The total length of the highway network is approximately 3,000 kilometers (1,864 miles).


Poland has several major seaports along the Baltic Sea, serving as important hubs for maritime transportation and trade. The five major ports include:

  1. Port of Gdańsk
  2. Port of Gdynia
  3. Port of Szczecin
  4. Port of Świnoujście
  5. Port of Police

Country Facts

  • Population: 38 million
  • Capital: Warsaw
  • Official Language: Polish
  • Religion: Predominantly Roman Catholic
  • Race: Predominantly Polish, with small minority populations
  • Currency: Polish złoty (PLN)
  • ISO Country Code: PL
  • International Calling Code: +48
  • Top-Level Domain: .pl