Ecuador Geography

by | November 23, 2021

Officially known as the Republic of Ecuador, Ecuador is a country located in the northwest of South America. It limits to the north with Colombia, to the south and east with Peru and to the west with the Pacific Ocean. Its capital is San Francisco de Quito, headquarters of the main state entities and the National Government and its largest city is Santiago de Guayaquil, main seaport and important economic center. In Ecuador there are 70 volcanoes, 14 in active state, 14 inactive volcanoes and 42 passive ones, the highest volcano being Chimborazo, with 6,310 meters above sea level. It is the main exporter of bananas worldwide and one of the main exporters of flowers, shrimp (prawns) and cocoa.

Political division

Ecuador is divided into 24 provinces.

Province Capital Surface (km 2) Population (2010)
Azuay Basin 8639 712127
Bolívar Province (Ecuador) Guaranda 3254 183641
Province of Cañar Quicksilver 3908 225184
Carchi Province Tulcán (Ecuador) 3699 164524
Chimborazo Province Riobamba 5287 458581
Cotopaxi Province Latacunga 6569 409205
Province of El Oro Machala (Ecuador) 5988 600659
Esmeraldas Province Emeralds 14893 491168
Galapagos Islands Puerto Baquerizo Moreno (Ecuador) 8010 25124
Guayas Province Guayaquil 17139 3643000
Imbabura Province Ibarra (Ecuador) 4600 399000
Loja Province Loja 11027 454000
Los Ríos Province Babahoyo (Ecuador) 6254 779000
Manabi Province Portoviejo (Ecuador) 18400 1370000
Morona Santiago Province Macas (Ecuador) 25690 148000
Napo Province Tena (Ecuador) 13271 103000
Orellana Province Puerto Francisco de Orellana (El Coca) 20773 136396
Pastaza Province Puyo (Ecuador) 29520 83933
Pichincha Quito 9494 2576287
st. Helen st. Helen 3763 308693
Province of Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas Santo Domingo 4180 410937
Sucumbíos Province New Loja 18612 176472
Tungurahua Province Ambato 3334 504583
Zamora Chinchipe Province Zamora 10556 91376


According to Allcitycodes, Ecuador is located on the terrestrial equatorial line, therefore its territory is in both hemispheres. It comprises two distant spaces: the continental territory to the northwest of South America with some islands adjacent to the coast, and the archipelago or insular province of Galapagos, which is located almost 1,000 kilometers away from the Ecuadorian coast in the Pacific Ocean.


The main units of the Ecuadorian relief are the coastal plain to the north of the Gulf of Guayaquil, the section of the Andes Mountains in the center of the country and an extensive sector of the Amazonian plain located to the east of the country.

To the southwest is the Gulf of Guayaquil, where the Guayas River flows into the Pacific Ocean. Very close to Quito, the capital, on the Andes mountain range, rises the Cotopaxi, the highest active volcano in the world. The highest point in Ecuador is the Chimborazo volcano, with 6,313 meters above sea level and whose top is the farthest place from the earth’s core due to the elliptical silhouette of the planet.


Due to the presence of the Andes mountain range and according to the influence of the sea, continental Ecuador is climatologically fragmented into various sectors. Furthermore, because of its tropical location, each climatic zone has only two defined seasons: wet and dry. Both on the Coast and in the East the temperature ranges between 20 ° C and 33 ° C, while in the mountains, it is usually between 8 ° C and 23 ° C. The wet season extends from December to May on the coast, from November to April in the mountains, and from January to September in the Amazon.

Galapagos has a rather temperate climate and its temperature ranges between 22 and 32 degrees Celsius, approximately.

Flora and fauna

It has a rich fauna and flora that is why it is on the list of megadiverse countries. Indeed, the jungle or tropical forest biome extends over most of its territory, while in the west, adjacent to the coast, there is also the dry forest and mangrove biome. In the mountainous heights, the Andean forests and moors are also scattered. The West is part of the biogeographic Chocó and the East, of the Amazon.

The Galapagos Islands have a great variety of endemic species, which in their

At that time they were studied by the famous English naturalist Charles Darwin, which allowed him to develop his theory of evolution by natural selection. The islands have gained worldwide fame due to the particularity of their fauna, especially the turtles known as “galapagos”. Also in the province of Esmeraldas in a place known as Majagual, there are the highest mangroves in the world.

There is also the Yasuní National Park, with 982,000 hectares was designated by UNESCO in 1989 as a biosphere reserve and is part of the territory where the Huaorani people and the Tagaeri and Taromenane, uncontacted groups, are located. According to a recent study, the National Park and the underlying expanded area are considered the most biodiverse area on the planet due to their richness in amphibians, birds, mammals and plants. This park has more species of animals per hectare than all of Europe combined.

Ecuador Geography