Flora and Fauna in Canada

by | June 1, 2021

Canada – unique flora and fauna of impressive wildness

Canada has areas of untouched nature on a gigantic scale. Dense forests, tundra and prairie landscapes as well as the mountain range of the Rocky Mountains cover over half of Canada’s 417 million hectares. These natural areas have an incredible variety of flora and fauna. The forests have grown over a period of thousands of years and, together with earth, water and air, form an ecosystem that also provides a habitat for rare plants and animals. The leaf of the sugar maple, which in autumn with its golden yellow foliage causes the natural phenomenon of the Indian summer in eastern Canada, symbolizes the North American state on the Canadian flag. Western Canada is home to two of the most impressive creatures in Canada’s fauna, the killer whale (Orcinus orca) and the grizzly bear (Ursus Arctus Horribilis). In quiet seclusion and in coordination with nature and under the guidance of an experienced tour guide, you can get closer to these animals with the necessary respect.

Polar bears and arctic wolves roam northern Canada
According to SHOE-WIKI, Canada’s natural landscape makes up around twenty percent of the world’s wilderness areas, not including Antarctica. This and Canada’s environmental efforts enable many endangered species to live in freedom. Canada borders the Arctic Ocean to the north, so polar bears can be found in the wild in this area. An extensive landscape similar to the tundra adjoins that of the polar region (the second largest after Russia). The cold-resistant muskoxes, arctic wolves, arctic foxes and arctic hares live here. A section about 6000 kilometers long consists of homogeneous coniferous forest. Canada thus has the largest forest area on earth with conifers (softwoods) such as firs, Weymouth pines, spruces, Douglas firs, including the Engelmann spruce, which can be up to sixty meters high. Many migratory birds such as alkene, Terns and gulls have their summer transition area in the Canadian coniferous forest on their East Atlantic flight. Moose, foxes and porcupines also feel at home in the dark coniferous forests.

Vancouver Island – playground for whales and grizzly bears
Giant brown bears, the grizzly bears, can be seen in the Knight Inlet Fjord in the islands of the Canadian west coast in May and September. After hibernating, they move with their young to the lush green shores of the Pacific. In September the schools of salmon between Vancouver Island and the Canadian mainland attract killer whales, but also sea lions and dolphins. Even the grizzly bears, the rulers of the Canadian wilderness, cannot dispute the nutritious delicacies before hibernating. After that, the beautiful bald eagles also want their share of the salmon supply. Vancouver Island has “indoor rainforests” where exotic butterflies can be admired. The islands off the Pacific coast are a haven for herons, hawks and owls.

The mild Pacific coast and Canada’s west – tropical vegetation and whale territory
In the warm, rainy areas of the west coast of Canada, a kind of tropical forest has formed in which ferns and the mighty cedar trees (English Western Red Cedar) thrive. The Indians call these evergreen trees “Great Tree of Life” because they can live for over a thousand years and can reach a circumference of up to fifty meters. This rainforest is also home to the rare Marmelalk, a sea bird that can only breed in old trees. The bays of the Canadian Pacific coast are home to the giant killer whales, also known as orcas. The more northerly regions in the Cariboo Mountains are the refuge of the imposing mountain grizzlys. Unfortunately, the Rocky Mountains also offer fewer and fewer retreats for the grizzly bears (industry, raw material extraction). Further south, The forests of the warmer region are home to up to 5 million birds of various species, including the American gray heron and the Canadian goose. Numerous national parks and nature reserves have been created in Canada to protect nature. The almost extinct bison has found a home in Buffalo Wood National Park. Western Canada is also the world of the bighorn sheep.

In eastern Canada – on the trail of moose and black bears
Moose and bears live in a high plateau landscape that is reminiscent of the Nordic tundra. At the Duchesnay Resort, black bears can be observed from a safe distance on a viewing platform. But black bears can also be found in western Canada, in the area around Toby Creek in British Columbia. Mixed forests are grouped around the Great Lakes, consisting of e.g. oak, elm, fir and maple. In the animal world there are also very small insects, not to be underestimated the mosquitoes, which can become a nuisance in the Great Lakes area in summer. In the southwest of Ontario you can sometimes find a forest with only deciduous trees. In autumn in the provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the foliage of the sugar maple, which brings out the golden-red shining Indian summer, is particularly beautiful.

Flora and Fauna in Canada