According to JUSTINSHOES, Kolomna is located 114 km south of Moscow at the confluence of the Moskva River with the Oka River.
For the first time the city is mentioned in 1177, this year is considered the year of foundation of the city. At that time, Kolomna was a border post of the Ryazan principality. Its advantageous position – at the confluence of the Moscow and Oka rivers, from where it was possible to get to the Volga, contributed to the development of trade. In 1301, the city was annexed to the Moscow principality and a little later the Kolomna diocese was established here. During the Tatar-Mongol invasion Kolomna it was ruined more than once, however, this did not prevent it from becoming one of the richest cities of the Muscovite state by the turn of the 14th-15th centuries. At the beginning of the 16th century, a powerful stone Kremlin was built in the city, which, throughout the history of the city, the enemies could not take. The Kremlin protected the city, and the state as a whole, from the attacks of the rebellious peasants and Polish interventionists at the beginning of the 17th century. By the middle of the 17th century, the borders of the Muscovite state expanded, and Kolomna ceased to be an important border post. Since then, the development of crafts and trade has been in full swing. In 1781 Kolomna became a county town of the Moscow province. In 1862, a railway track was laid from the city to Moscow, which contributed to the development of industry. Today Kolomna – a large industrial center and one of the oldest cities in Russia, which keeps a lot of historical monuments.
The main architectural landmark of the city is the remains of the stone Kremlin. This is one of the most powerful ancient fortifications preserved in Russia., and a fine example of ancient Russian architecture. The Kolomna Kremlin was built between 1525 and 1531. It was erected in stone instead of old wooden defensive buildings to strengthen the southern borders of the Moscow principality from the raids of the Crimean and Kazan Tatars. According to some reports, the construction of the Kremlin was carried out under the guidance of Italian architects who took part in the construction of the Moscow Kremlin. The Kolomna Kremlin had 17 towers, of which 7 have survived to this day. These are the Pyatnitskaya tower with the remains of the front gate, Alekseevskaya, Spasskaya, Simeonovskaya, Yamskaya, Faceted and Kolomenskaya towers. Most of the towers are quadrangular, their height reaches 24 m, and the thickness of the walls varies from 2 to 3 m. The Pyatnitskaya tower resembles the Spasskaya tower of the Moscow Kremlin; Moscow. From the walls of the Kremlin to the present day, the Mikhailovsky Gates have also been preserved.
There are several cathedrals on the vast Cathedral Square of the Kremlin. The Assumption Cathedral was founded in 1379 by Prince Dmitry Donskoy after the victory over the Golden Horde on the Vozha River. The current cathedral appeared in 1682. It was built of brick using material from the dismantling of the old cathedral. The carved Baroque iconostasis of the second half of the 18th century, as well as icons and wall paintings of the 19th century, have been preserved in its interior. The shrine of the temple are copies of the icon of Our Lady of the Don, painted from the original. Near the Assumption Cathedral is the Tikhvin Church. It was built in 1858-1861 on the site of the dismantled church of 1776. On the western side, a hipped bell tower of the 17th century adjoins the Tikhvin Church, where new bells were installed in the 20th century. The largest of them weighs over two tons. In the Kremlin, not far from the Pyatnitsky Gates, there is the Exaltation of the Cross Church. It was erected in 1764. In the period from 1790 to 1825, the icon of Our Lady of the Don, taken from the Pyatnitsky Gates, was kept in the church.
There are many religious buildings outside the walls of the Kolomna Kremlin. Church of St. Nicholas in Posada is one of the oldest churches in Kolomna. It has been mentioned in scribe books since the end of the 16th century. The current stone church was built in the early 18th century in the “Moscow baroque” style. Its distinctive feature is 5 tiers of kokoshniks (a unique case for Russian architecture). The brick Church of Michael the Archangel was built at the end of the 18th century. Now the city Museum of Local Lore operates here, where items of peasant life, furniture, works of fine art, photo and documentary materials on the history of the region are collected.
On the outskirts of Kolomna is the Epiphany Staro-Golutvin Monastery. The foundation of the monastery dates back to the 14th century and is attributed to St. Sergius of Radonezh. The existing architectural ensemble was created in the 18-19 centuries and includes the Cathedral of the Epiphany, the Church of Sergius, the Bell Tower over the Holy Gates, the rector’s building, the private building and a brick fence with pseudo-Gothic towers. It is also worth looking at the Church of the Epiphany in Gonchary (end of the 17th century), the Church of the Ascension (1799) and the Church of John the Baptist on Gorodische (beginning of the 16th century).
The cultural center “House of Ozerov” operates in Kolomna with showrooms. The very building of the cultural center, made in the spirit of classicism, is an architectural monument of the late 18th – early 19th centuries. Previously, this mansion belonged to the merchant A.S. Ozerov, who was engaged in charity work. Exhibition work in the halls of the mansion began in 1980. The main exhibition hall, which has excellent acoustics, is also a concert hall.
In the central part of Kolomna there is a Memorial Park. Along it stretches the alley of military glory Kolomentsev, on which there are monuments to the heroes of Kolomna who fell during the Great Patriotic War. An “eternal flame” and monuments to the mother of the deceased soldier and the courage of artillerymen in the Great Patriotic War were installed in the park.
Slightly north of Kolomna in the village of Staroe Bobrenevo interesting Bogoroditse-Rozhdestvensky Bobrenev Monastery. It was founded in 1381 as a guard post on the outskirts of Kolomna. At the end of the 18th century it was completely rebuilt. Of the buildings of the monastery, the Cathedral of the Nativity of the Virgin with a hipped bell tower, the Fedorov Church, the rector’s building, cell buildings, walls and towers have been preserved.