Poland Population

By | May 6, 2024

Population Distribution

As of 2023, the latest population of Poland is 38,282,325, based on our calculation of the current data from UN (United Nations).

Total population 38,282,325
Population growth rate -0.19%
Birth rate 9.50 births per 1,000 people
Life expectancy
Overall life expectancy 76.45 years
Men life expectancy 72.53 years
Women life expectancy 80.62 years
Age structure
0-14 years 14.80%
15-64 years 67.73%
65 years and above 17.47%
Median age 39.90 years
Gender ratio (Male to Female) 0.94
Population density 122.43 residents per km²
Urbanization 61.90%
96.9% Poles, national minorities: 2.1% Silesians, 0.6% Kashubians, 0.3% Germans, including: Ukrainians, Belarusians, Roma, Lithuanians, Slovaks, Armenians, Tatars, Czechs; Proportion of foreigners 2015: 0.3%
Catholics (Roman Catholic) 95% (thereof 75% practicing), Orthodox 1.3% Protestants 0.3%, others 0.3% unspecified 8.3% [2002]
Human Development Index (HDI) 0.872
HDI ranking 32nd out of 194

People in Poland

38 million people live in Poland. Almost all of them, namely 99.7 percent of the population, are Poles. The minorities living in the country are actually very small. They include Germans, Belarusians, Ukrainians and Russians.

The largest of these minorities calls themselves Silesians. They make up around two percent of the population and live mainly in Upper Silesia, that is, in the south-west of Poland around the cities of Opole and Katowice. Silesians can still have Polish nationality.

60 out of 100 people live in a city. In comparison with other countries, that is rather little. So there are also quite a few Poles living in the country. The biggest cities are Warsaw, Krakow, Wroclaw, Poznan, Gdansk and Szczecin. 122 Poles live per square kilometer. That is a medium-sized population density.

The average age is 41.9 years (in Germany: 47.4 years). Each woman has an average of 1.3 children. That is very little. Many Polish children are now growing up without siblings. The population is not growing, it is decreasing. The average life expectancy is 82.3 years for women and 74.5 years for men.

Languages in Poland

Polish is spoken in Poland. But there are also some minority languages ​​such as Kashubian in the Gdansk region, German in and around Opole, Belarusian on the border with Belarus or Lithuanian on the border with Lithuania. Armenian, Russian and Ukrainian are also not spoken in a regionally concentrated manner.

Polish is one of the Slavic languages. It is the most widely spoken Slavic language in the world after Russian. There are also several dialects in Polish. The main groups are Greater Poland, Lesser Poland, Mazovian, Silesian, mixed dialects and Kashubian. Kashubian is now seen as a separate language. It is spoken in the greater Gdansk area.

Letters in Polish

Polish is written with Latin letters (these are the ones you are reading here). The alphabet is supplemented by the letters Ą, Ć, Ę, Ł, Ń, Ó, Ś, Ź and Ż. These are all letters with diacritical marks. This is what the small ticks or lines on the letters are called. Q, V and X occur in the Polish alphabet, but are only used in foreign words.

As in Russian, there are hard and soft consonants. However, vowels only appear in a short form. There are also nasal sounds and multiple sibilants. Learning the pronunciation is not that easy. The penultimate syllable of a word is usually stressed. There are seven cases in grammar, while we only have four in German.

Religions in Poland

The predominant religion is Catholicism: 86 percent of all Poles belong to the Roman Catholic Church. It has great influence not only religiously, but also in social and political life. In the big cities, however, the influence is waning.

The Poles were very proud when Cardinal Karol Woytila ​​was elected Pope in 1978 and, as Pope John Paul II, remained in this highest Catholic office until his death in 2005.

1.3 percent belong to an Orthodox Church. Other very small minorities are Protestants, Jews, Muslims, Mormons or Jehovah’s Witnesses.

Poland Overview

Poland, situated in Central Europe, is renowned for its rich history, vibrant culture, and stunning medieval architecture. Its capital city, Warsaw, is known for its reconstructed Old Town, vibrant nightlife, and significant historical landmarks like the Royal Castle and Wilanów Palace. Poland is famous for its resilient spirit, having overcome numerous challenges throughout its tumultuous history, including World War II and communist rule. The country’s cultural heritage is celebrated through its traditional festivals, hearty cuisine, and folk music and dance, while its picturesque landscapes, including the Tatra Mountains and Masurian Lakes, attract outdoor enthusiasts and nature lovers.

  • Capital City: Warsaw
  • Population: Approximately 38 million
  • Area: 312,696 square kilometers
  • Full Country Name: Republic of Poland
  • Currency: Polish Zloty (PLN)
  • Language: Polish
  • ISO Country Codes: PL, POL

Bordering Countries of Poland

Poland is bordered by seven countries: Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and Lithuania and Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) to the north. The boundary line between Poland and Germany begins in the northwest corner of Polish territory at latitude 54°N. This boundary follows longitude 14ºE eastward until reaching its terminus at latitude 51°N.

The Czech Republic has a 615 km (382 mi) border with Poland that starts in the southwest corner of Polish territory at latitude 51°N. This boundary follows longitude 16ºE eastward until it reaches longitude 18ºE where it turns northward along parallel 50°N until reaching its terminus at latitude 54° N. Slovakia has a 541 km (336 mi) border with Poland that begins in the south corner of Polish territory at latitude 49° N. This boundary follows longitude 19ºE eastward until it reaches longitude 22ºE where it turns northward along parallel 48° N until reaching its terminus at latitude 49° N.

Ukraine has a 535 km (332 mi) border with Poland that starts in the southeast corner of Polish territory at latitude 49°N. This boundary follows longitude 23º E eastward until it reaches its terminus at latitude 52° N. Belarus has a 605 km (376 mi) border with Poland that begins in the northeast corner of Polish territory at latitude 52 °N. This boundary follows longitude 23 º E westward until it reaches its terminus at latitude 54 °N.

Lithuania has a 103 km (64 mi) border with Poland that starts in the northeast corner of Polish territory at latitude 54 °N. This boundary follows longitude 21 º E westward until it reaches its terminus at Latitude 55 º N. Lastly, Russia has a 206 km (128 mi) border with Poland that starts in the northwest corner of Polish territory at Latitude 55 º N before turning southward along parallel 53 º N then turning westward along Longitude 20 º E before reaching its terminus back on Latitude 55 º N.


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