Geography of Cheshire County, New Hampshire

by | March 14, 2024

Cheshire County, located in the southwestern part of the state of New Hampshire, is a region of diverse geography, rich history, and vibrant communities. Encompassing an area of approximately 729 square miles, Cheshire County is known for its rolling hills, fertile valleys, and picturesque landscapes. In this comprehensive overview, we’ll explore the geography, climate, rivers, lakes, and other notable features of Cheshire County, New Hampshire.┬áCheck deluxesurveillance to learn more about the state of New Hampshire.


Cheshire County is situated in the Monadnock Region of New Hampshire, bordered by the state of Vermont to the west, the state of Massachusetts to the south, and the counties of Hillsborough and Sullivan to the east. The county is named after Cheshire, England, and includes several towns and cities, including the county seat of Keene.

The landscape of Cheshire County is predominantly characterized by rolling hills, fertile valleys, and wooded areas. The county’s geography is shaped by its location in the Connecticut River Valley and its proximity to the Monadnock Region, home to Mount Monadnock, one of the most climbed mountains in the world.


Cheshire County experiences a humid continental climate, characterized by four distinct seasons with relatively cold winters and warm summers. The county’s climate is influenced by its location in the northeastern part of the United States and its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean.

Summer temperatures in Cheshire County can be warm, with daytime highs typically ranging from the 70s to the 80s Fahrenheit (around 21 to 31 degrees Celsius). Humidity levels are often moderate during the summer months, with occasional thunderstorms bringing heavy rainfall.

Winter temperatures in Cheshire County are cold, with daytime highs typically ranging from the 20s to the 30s Fahrenheit (around -1 to 4 degrees Celsius). Nighttime lows can drop below freezing, with temperatures typically ranging from the teens to the 20s Fahrenheit (around -7 to -1 degrees Celsius).

Precipitation in Cheshire County is relatively evenly distributed throughout the year, with rain showers and snowfall occurring throughout the year. The county receives an average of around 40 to 45 inches of precipitation annually, with the majority of it occurring in the form of rain during the spring and summer months.

Rivers and Lakes:

Cheshire County is home to several rivers, creeks, and streams that play a vital role in its geography, ecology, and economy.

The Connecticut River forms part of the county’s western border with Vermont, serving as an important waterway for transportation, recreation, and commerce. The Connecticut River and its tributaries provide habitat for a diverse array of fish, wildlife, and plant species.

Another important waterway is the Ashuelot River, which flows through the central part of the county before joining the Connecticut River. The Ashuelot River and its tributaries provide additional opportunities for outdoor recreation and contribute to the county’s natural beauty.

Cheshire County is also home to several small lakes and ponds, including Wilson Pond, Surry Mountain Lake, and Spectacle Pond, which provide opportunities for fishing, boating, and other water-based activities. These lakes and ponds also serve as important habitats for wildlife and contribute to the county’s biodiversity.

Forests and Wildlife:

Cheshire County’s diverse landscapes support a variety of ecosystems, including forests, wetlands, and grasslands, which provide habitat for a wide variety of plant and animal species.

The county’s forests are primarily composed of deciduous trees such as maple, oak, and birch, as well as coniferous trees such as pine and spruce. These forests provide habitat for a variety of wildlife, including deer, squirrels, rabbits, and numerous bird species.

Wetlands and marshes are also prevalent in Cheshire County, particularly along the banks of rivers and streams. These wetlands provide habitat for waterfowl, amphibians, and reptiles, as well as serving as important breeding grounds for fish and other aquatic species.


Agriculture plays a significant role in the economy of Cheshire County, with crop farming, dairy farming, and livestock production being among the primary industries in the area. The county’s fertile soils and favorable climate support a wide variety of agricultural activities, including corn, soybeans, hay, and dairy products.

Dairy farming is particularly important in Cheshire County, with numerous dairy farms producing milk and other dairy products for local and regional markets. Livestock farming is also prevalent, with cattle, sheep, and poultry being raised on farms throughout the area.

Cultural and Historical Significance:

Cheshire County has a rich cultural and historical heritage, with a legacy shaped by its early settlers, Native American history, and agricultural traditions.

The county is home to several historic sites and landmarks, including the Cheshire Historical Society Museum in Keene, which preserves and interprets the area’s cultural and historical heritage. The museum features exhibits on the region’s early settlers, its Native American inhabitants, and its contributions to New Hampshire’s history.

Cheshire County is also known for its vibrant arts and cultural scene, with numerous galleries, theaters, and performance venues located throughout the area. The county’s diverse population and rich cultural heritage are reflected in its festivals, events, and celebrations, which showcase the traditions, customs, and cuisines of its residents.


In conclusion, Cheshire County, New Hampshire, is a region of diverse geography, rich natural beauty, and vibrant communities. From its rolling hills and fertile valleys to its meandering rivers and picturesque landscapes, the county offers a wealth of opportunities for outdoor recreation, wildlife viewing, and cultural exploration. Whether enjoying its scenic beauty, sampling its agricultural products, or learning about its history and heritage, Cheshire County invites visitors to experience the timeless allure of New England’s countryside.